R22 is one of the gases that have been used over time in refrigeration and in air conditioning. It is a short form of a halocarbon compound, monochlorodifluoromethane, this compound works as a refrigerant. R represents refrigerant and in the number 22, the later 2 is the fluorine atoms in this compound. R22 Has a boiling point of -40.8 degrees, this low b.p.t is what makes this gas suitable for use in applications with low temperature such as freezers. Currently, R22 is still used in for liquefaction of the gases in the large industries, which is a huge cost to the factories, see http://www.bluonenergy.com/r22-price/.
R22 is commonly used as air conditioners such as packaged AC, window AC and in several air conditioning systems. The gas is safe for domestic and industrial usage, this is because it is non-toxic and it is not flammable. When using this refrigerant the intensity of the superheat should be kept minimum because it has a high discharge temperature. The compression ratio too should be low, and if it happens to be high, between the two stages of compression, intercooling should be kept. At condenser temperature, it is very easy to mix; the R22 with oil, but it separates when in the evaporator temperature. However, proper designing of the suction piping and evaporator can control the separation.
R22 has a high absorption rate of water, which is an important factor in applications of low temperature because the water in the refrigerant would not have bad effects on the refrigeration system. The little amount of water in the refrigerant is not required. The compressor displacement of R22 is low, for this refrigerant to produce similar compression; the displacement needed with R22 is quite small when compared to other refrigerants like R12. It is approximately 60% of that of R12. This means that a system using R22 has 65% more capacity of refrigeration than R12, thus resulting in high efficiency in refrigeration while using less power which is important in industrial and domestic applications.
When R22 is compared with refrigerant R11, the rate in which it affects the ozone layer is 5% of the R11, R11 has a high destruction potential of the ozone layer. R22 has a single hydrogen atom, and the hydrogen atoms are not fully replaced by the halocarbons as it is in CFCs. These halocarbons have a high negative effect on the ozone layer.
There are prospects that R22 will be replaced by the year 2021 by some alternatives such as R-507, R-14a, and R-407a. These alternatives are combinations of hydrofluorocarbons, which do not add to ozone depletion. There is a probability that these alternatives will have environmental effects and are still being researched.
R22 should be well and safely disposed of, in case you decide to replace your air conditioner that uses R22 as a refrigerant, the easier way of disposing of R22 is having a technician drain the refrigerant lines, while he installs a new conditioner for you. You should also ensure not to cut the refrigeration lines or have compressor removed prior the draining of the refrigerant.